January 2020 Download this article as a PDF
Welcome to the December issue of the Technology Innovation Management Review. 
The edition starts with a paper by Sylvia Mónica Pérez Núñez and Arturo Serrano-Santoyo on “Multi-Actor Network Perspective: CaliBaja an emergent binational innovation ecosystem”. The authors lead us through a brief history of the development of the Mexican innovation system in the state of Baja California, with a particular focus on the aquaculture industry. The paper addresses several binational features of this regional ecosystem with Southern California, drawing attention to what makes a global mega-region develop innovatively based on local contributors. Actor mapping and social network analysis were applied to identify a dynamic multi-actor network perspective to the regional aquaculture industry. They conclude by noting that, a “binational innovation ecosystem has great potential to catalyze cross-border competitiveness and collaborative initiatives that value territorial proximity to institutions, which is essential for an innovation ecosystem” (12-13).
The second paper by Behrooz Khademi is on the topic of “Ecosystem Value Creation and Capture (EVCC): A Systematic Review of Literature and Potential Research Opportunities”. In it he responds to a current need given the fragmented character of current research on EVCC, that “there has not yet been any attempt to organize and synthesize the various different studies that have focussed on and proven relevant to EVCC” (29). The author uses Web of Science to conduct a review of EVCC-oriented literature, a topic which has been growing rapidly since 2016. With a focus on business ecosystems, the paper addresses the mechanisms, operational practises, and drivers of EVCC, as well as highlighting some of its challenges. The paper provides a substantial bibliography with related materials, suggests further research opportunities for EVCC, and offers directions to organize and synthesize previous works as a coherent overview of the field.
In the next paper, Mika Westerlund follows with “An Ethical Framework for Smart Robots”, the first of two papers in consecutive TIM Review editions on the topic. The author presents an approach to the incoming challenge of “roboethics”, which has recently begun to emerge alongside of the growing adoption of “smart robots”. These he defines as “autonomous artificial intelligence (AI) systems that can collaborate with humans” (35). He points to growing trends in AI that have accelerated the use of robots, even while mainly negative public opinion about the widespread use of robots in society persists. The paper highlights and builds upon key ethical issues already in the literature for smart robots, as 1) amoral and passive tools, 2) recipients of ethical behaviour in society, 3) moral and active agents, and 4) ethical impact-makers in society (37-40). It follows up on this with an ethical framework for smart robots based on two dimensions: the ethical agency of humans using smart robots, and robots as objects of human moral judgment. The paper also raises the provocative topic of the rise of autonomous and semi-autonomous robots, which are built to be sensitive and responsive to human needs as the main source for ethical assessment.
A team of scholars from the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tuija Rantala, Tiina Apilo, Katariina Palomäki, and Katri Valkokari, presents the next paper on “Selling Data-Based Value in Business-to-Business Markets”. Their focus on business-to-business sales is predicated on the notion of data-based value as a way of driving value sales. This can lead to new business creation that offers digital solutions. The paper takes the perspective of both sellers and customers of data-based value through two sets of focussed interviews with data seller companies, as well as data customer companies. The paper offers a note of caution that in today’s data-based value market, “customers now know and demand more than they did before, and therefore creating value for demanding customers may be difficult” (51). The paper displays a general background for the recent growth of data-based business sales with the rise of digitalization and advances in IT channels. It looks at conventional data-mining in contrast with disruptive AI systems, as they impact both the marketplace in general, as well as personnel involves in sales. 
The final paper is a collaborative work by Harini Mittal, Punit Saurabh, Devang Rohit, and Kathak Mehta asking: “What impedes the success of late mover IT clusters despite economically favorable environments?” They attempt to answer this difficult question of timing, through a case study of an Indian IT cluster in the state of Gujarat. The paper looks at the enormous IT industry in India as whole, and compares the growth as well as the growing pains and challenges of Gujarat arriving later than other Indian states in developing a competitive IT cluster. The paper looks at various different models of IT-oriented clustering, the IT-talent pool, government policies, educational and innovative research institutions, funding sources, and the importance of having an entrepreneurial culture to drive the cluster.
The TIM Review currently has a Call for Papers on the website for April and May special editions on “Digitalization and its Impact on the International Growth of SMEs ”,  and “The Sharing Economy as a Path to Government Innovation.” See the Upcoming Themes on the website for further information for prospective authors. For future issues, we invite general submissions of articles on technology entrepreneurship, innovation management, and other topics relevant to launching and scaling technology companies, and solving practical problems in emerging domains. Please contact us with potential article ideas and submissions, or proposals for future special issues.
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Keywords: AI, artificial intelligence, B2B sales, big data, business-to-business sales, data-based value, digital solutions, ecosystem, ecosystems, Ethics, Gujarat State, Indian IT industry, innovation, IT clusters, Knowledge Innovation clusters, Networks Analysis, regional development, Roboethics, Smart robot, strategy, Systematic literature review, technology, value capture, value creation, value sales